Roster of experts available for interviews with journalists
Observing the impact of Climate Change
The feature article was published on June 5, 2009in Nagarik National Daily Published from Capital Kathmandu
in special issues to mark the world environment day. It
is translation version of Nepali language in English.
Kathmandu, June 4
The two weeks long research carried out by Climate Change Expert Ngmindra Dahal found out the impact of evidence of climate change on cultivation pattern of Apple on Hilly Mustang District. ‘We
found Ant in Apple with changing taste in Marfa area of Mustang;' quoting the
words of local farmer he said to Nagarik daily.
'Farmers are feeling impact of climate change in their day to day life in last few years', he says. 'Due to the impact of global warming and climate change this effects are seen', he added.
He lamented that Ant is seen in larger number in this area due to the impact of global warming and reducing in the falling pattern of ice. The temperature is increasing in average 0.8 degree
Celsius yearly in high mountainous area. Due to the increment of temperature
different diseases are seen in plant resources. In experience of Dahal in low
level area of Mustang tasty and disease fewer Apples are found in small number.
And, production quantity is also decreasing. Farmers are affected from it. Dahal
said that torrential rainfall pattern is increasing and snow fall pattern is
decreasing in this area in last few years. Due to the increment of rainfall pattern
the traditional roof made with the soil is broken down in to small pieces.
The impact of global warming and climate change symptoms are seen clearly in specialized area of agriculture, tourism, water resources, bio diversity and people day to day life. The average
level of temperature increment in Terai area is 0.4 Degree Celsius and in
country is 0.6 Degree Celsius.
It is not necessary to be expert to observe and understand the effect; Dahal added that ‘We can see the impact in our living area comparing the condition of few years ago and now.’ The
general citizens are feeling the impact of climate change in natural resources
and in people’s day to day life in terai, mountainous, high mountainous and
hilly area. Mountain Climbers are seeing the level of increasing the glacier
lake. The levels of Himalayan River are shrinking.
‘There is possibility of danger of bursting the glacier lake due to the melting of Himalayas. The Himalayan Rivers are going to shrink’, another climate change expert Dr. Arun Bhakta Shrestha added. There is
a possibility of danger to burst the glacier lakes and destroy the settlement
and physical infrastructure of hydropower projects, bridge and road developed
in low level area.
The Hindu Kush Himalayan area is water resources for 2 billion peoples living in Nepal, China, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan etc. The scientific
research found out that the major water resources source is in danger due to
the increment of melting of Himalayas
and decreasing the falling pattern of snow.
According to Dr. Hem Sagar Baral, Bird Expert due to the impact of climate change it affects in migration of birds for settlement from one place to another place, way of living and in their character too. He said that, ‘the
travel schedule of bird coming from outside to Nepal is changed due to the increment of global warming'.
They are coming and returning some few months ago. In his experience due to the
hot days the local bird changed the time before to hatch out the child birds
from the egg.
‘The changing time to hatch the child birds causes the lack of food to them. At hatching time Ants are not coming from the hole. This causes the decrement of number of birds’, Dr Baral
The research studied of Wild life Expert Dr. Shanta Ram Gyanwali found out that the rare wildlife habitat is destroying with changing their body structural position. ‘The species living
near bank of river are in position of lost’, he further said that the habitat
area of Elephant and Rhinoceros will be lost slowly due to the lack of flood in
river and dry season. These problems are seen in Bardia National Park and
Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve Area. ‘Water species will be more effected by
this’, he said.
The report of climate change expert shows that the rainfall pattern is increased in little time in Nepal due to the impact of climate change. It have made impact on increasing floods and landslides and changing
the productive pattern of agriculture. Due to the dry season the cultivation
pattern of paddy and maize also changed. The Kathmandu valley is also affected by the impact of
temperature increment. The temperature rises in Kathmandu from 0.5 Degree Celsius in last 10 years.
‘Due to the increment of temperature Mosquitoes are seen in Kathmandu. In past decades Mosquitoes are not seen’, Dr Tirtha Bahadur Shrestha Botanical
Expert said. He informed that in Rana Regime Mangoes were fully grown in Singha
Durbar area only. Now in all area Mangoes are fully grown found. This is due to
the increment of warming.
He said that Rana’s were making yard in different area to pass the sun heat to help fully grown the mango. Due to the global warming different types of bushes are seen in Kathmandu
The temperature is rising due to the increment of concrete house, vehicles pollution and increment of population, Dr. Shrestha said. Due to the level of sun heat coming for longer
time the global warming is increased. But in past decades the sun rises and
weather is changed and it becomes cool with in few times, he added. Due to the
increment of temperature in city area Shirish flower is growing faster than
last few years, Dr. Shrestha told. ‘There is necessary to conduct research and
study in different area to know the fact’, he said.
The global warming and climate change are not only the problem of Nepal. It is the global problem. The under developed and developing countries are more
affected then developed countries. The symptoms of flood, landslides, dry
weather, forest fire etc in disaster are seen due to the global warming. The
scientist feels that destructive disaster and their number are increasing. It
affect in natural resources too. Due to this reason numbers of peoples are migrating.
The average level of global temperature is increasing 0.1 Degree Celsius every year. According to the report of UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) concluded that in next 100 years the global temperature will increased 3 to 6 times more than today.
The average level of temperature is 16.5 Degree Celsius. The increment of global warming melts the Himalayas to
increase the level of Himalayas 15 Centimeter
yearly. There is possibility of danger to sink the island area in ocean due to
the increment level of it.
Why global warming is increasing?
The problem of global warming is created due to the increment of six types of gases Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor (H2O),
ozone (O3), Halo carbons (HC) in biosphere. The sun rays came in earth after
crossing the level of these gases in earth. The heat of sun cannot go outside
the biosphere due to the effect of these green house gases.
That’s why global warming of earth is increasing. Before global industrialization in earth the level of CO2 in biosphere is 80 PPM.
But, now it becomes 385 PPM and it is increasing every year in ratio of
Scientists are warning developed countries to reduce the level of Green House Gases. The landslides, floods, dry weather, ocean storm wind and changing pattern of agriculture create
disaster due to the increment of global warming. They are damaging the human life
and physical infrastructure. These gases are created from different areas. CO2
is created from naturally by animals' breathing, industries, vehicles and deforestation
etc. Methane and Nitrous Oxide is created from Earth's surface, primarily in
soils, rivers/seas and in animal innards farming activities. Chlorofluorocarbons
created from small cottage and big industries. Per fluorocarbon are created from a
powerful greenhouse gas emitted during the production of aluminum and Hexafluoride is
also created from these type of different sectors.
Climate Change Adaptation Plan
Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology is making 'National Adaptation Plan of Action' (NAPA) to adapt the climate change. 'We are making the plan to adapt the climate change', Mina Khanal Joint Secretary
of Ministry of Environment said. The NAPA
will include the adaptation and mitigation plan to reduce the climate change
impact and secure the changing life style and technology.
The NAPA should be necessary to be made by 47 countries. The more than 40 countries had made NAPA. Nepal is in very last
position to made NAPA.
Before this Nepal had made
'Initial National communication Report' in support of United Nations
Environment Program (UNEP) including the study of impact of climate change and
potential area of study.
UN Frame Work Convention on Climate Change was opened for Conference of the parties for signature in Earth Summit organized in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. This was implemented from March 14, 1994. The objective of this
Convention is that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in
accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the national adaptation plan and
policy to implement and adapt and aware about the impact of climate change. This
was implemented from March 14, 1994.
Kyoto Protocol was developed in 1997 to implement this convention effectively. It is the duty of developed and industrialized countries to implement it to reduce the global impact of climate
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